Authorities of Freie Stadt Danzig

Based on art. 102 of the Peace Treaty of Versailles, in 1920 Danzig became a Free and Sovereign City under the Protection of the League of Nations: "The Principal Allied and Associated Powers undertake to establish the town of Danzig, together with the rest of the territory described in Article 100, as a Free City. It will be placed under the protection of the League of Nations".

According to the Art. 105 of Peace Treaty, all people who lived on the terrytory of Freie Stadt Danzig became nationals of Freie Stadt Danzig: "On the coming into force of the present Treaty German nationals ordinarily resident in the territory described in Article 100 will ipso facto lose their German nationality in order to become nationals of the Free City of Danzig".

Art. 103 of the Peace Treaty said that Freie Stadt Danzig should have its own constitution: "A constitution for the Free City of Danzig shall be drawn up by the duly appointed representatives of the Free City in agreement with a High Commissioner to be appointed by the League of Nations. This constitution shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations".

Acting on a majority vote of its Parliament (Volkstag), the Danzig Government (Senat) declared her intention to stay out of any conflict and to be Neutral. Having been made neutral and defenseless, yet "sovereign de jure", Danzig became automatically part of International law, protected by laws of the Hague Convention of 1907 concerning neutral Countries, was guaranteed protection to the civil population in case of War.

The Peace Treaty of Versailles and the Conventions of Paris and Warsaw (1919 - 1921) gave Poland some economic privileges and transferred to Poland all diplomatic and consular representations of Danzig, which did however retain the right to conclude treaties, join international organizations, etc. But parliament (Volkstag) and government (Senat) of Freie Stadt Danzig were independent from other nations.

On 17 November 1920 the Constitution of Freie Stadt Danzig was written and agreed by the League of Nations.

Text of Constituton of Freie Stadt Danzig (in German): Die Verfassung der Freien Stadt Danzig
Text of Constituton of Freie Stadt Danzig (in Polish): Konstytucja Wolnego Miasta Gdañska

The first page of Danziger Zeitung on 16.XI.1920 with information about the establishment of Freie Stadt Danzig

Representatives of the League of Nations in Freie Stadt Danzig


High Commisioners

     - 1920 Col. Edward Lisle Strutt (UK)
1920 - 1921 Bernardo Attolico (Italy)
1921 - 1923 Gen. Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking (UK)
1923 - 1925 Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (UK)
1925 - 1929 Joost Adriaan van Hamel (the Netherland)
1929 - 1932 Manfredi, Conte di Gravina dei Principi di Ramacca (Italy)
1932 - 1934 Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting (Denmark)
1934 - 1936 Seán Lester (Ireland)
1936 - 1937 none
1937 - 1939 Carl Jakob Burckhardt (Switzerland)



Heads of State


Presidents of the Senate
Senatspräsidenten

1920 - 1931 Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Martin Sahm
1931 - 1933 Ernst Ziehm
1933 - 1934 Hermann Rauschning
1934 - 1939 Arthur Greiser



Senators


Senators of Home Affairs
Senatoren des Inneres

1920 - 1924 Wilhelm Schümmer
1924 - 1928 Hubert Schwartz
1928 - 1929 Friedrich Grünhagen
1929 - 1931 Franz Arczynski
1931 - 1933 Georg Hinz
1933 - 1939 Arthur Greiser


Senators of Justice
Senatoren für Justiz

1920 - 1925 Albert Heinrich Frank
1925 - 1928 Hubert Schwartz
1928 - 1931 Albert Evert
1931 - 1933 Fritz Dumont
1933 - 1939 Willibald Wiercinski-Keiser


Senators of Finances
Senatoren für Finanzen

1921 - 1928 Ernst Volkmann
1928 - 1931 Bernhard Kamnitzer
1931 - 1939 Julius Hoppenrath


Presidents of Volkstag


1920 - 1921 Wilhelm Reinhard
1921 - 1921 Adalbert Mathaei
1921 - 1923 Adolf Treichel
1923 - 1924 Julius Gehl
1924 - 1926 Adolf Treichel
1926 - 1928 Alfred Semrau
1928 - 1930 Fritz Spill
1930 - 1931 Julius Gehl
1931 - 1933 Wilhelm von Wnuck
1933 - 1933 Franz Potrykus
1933 - 1936 Wilhelm von Wnuck
1937 - 1939 Edmund Beyl


 Identity card of member of Volkstag.

Building of government, Senat of Freie Stadt Danzig
Building of parliament, Volkstag of Freie Stadt Danzig

Based on the decision of Albert Forster and Adolf Hitler, in September 1939 the territory of Freie Stadt Danzig was, breaking international conventions and constitutions of Germany and Freie Stadt Danzig, illegally annexed to Germany.